Granth Sahib is the holiest book of Sikhs . (Granth - means book. Sahib - means
supreme) It is called "Guru" because Guru Gobind Singh (1660-1708 C.E.), the
tenth and last Guru of Sikhs, declared that after him, there will be no Guru
and diktat of Granth Saheb will be final.
by the fifth Guru Arjan Dev (1563-1606), Guru Granth Sahib in a sense a Holy
Book for the whole of the Indian subcontinent as well . This is because besides
compositions of Sikh gurus, it includes teachings and hymns of more than a
dozen of other saints from different communities and regions.
of Hindu, Muslim and Dalit (or depressed classes) from all over India are
included in the book:
came from Oudh,
and Pipa from Rajasthan,
Kabir, Farid and Ravidas from Banaras (Varanasi, present day Uttar Pradesh),
and Trilochan from Maharashtra.
were several devotees and disciples from Punjab whose hymns are also included.
Nanak Dev Ji used to compose songs on the spot and sing. His disciples
collected them in book form which was known as "Adigranth". Sayings (Shabad)
and hymns of four Guru who followed him, Guru Angad Dev Ji, Guru Amardas Ji
and Guru Ramdas Ji were also included in different books called "Pothis".
Arjan Dev took upon himself the tremendous task of compiling all the scattered
songs, sayings and hymns (shabad and bani) sifting and marshalling. He even
managed to get the manuscript "Pransangli" said to have been composed and sung
by Guru Nanak, during his sojourn in Ceylon (Sri Lanka). GuruArjan Dev Ji
himself provided much needed prayers, hymns and songs for group singing
(bhajans). They form bulk of the book.
Arjan Dev was a gifted poet and musician. All the spiritual literature has been
classified in different ragas. Each song is indicated by a specific raga.
one ragas prevalent then have been used. Arjan Dev got approval of the
rendering of ragas and singing style from the bards who were traditional
singers and who roamed the country.
great Book was ready by 1604 C. E. Called Granth Saheb, it was installed at the
Harimandir of Amristar. Guru Arjan Dev also built the Golden Temple.
final compilation was done by Guru Gobind Singh in 1705 C. E. to include his
father Guru Teg Bahadur's Slokas and only one `bani' of his own.
holy book contains the following: Japji, prayer of meditation, composed by
Nanak which is recited by every devout Sikh early in the morning.
Arjan Dev's composition and most popular one is recited before commencing daily
are hymns of all the Gurus, sung in the evening, and at times, in congregation.
or Sohan-Velas are recited before going to bed.
a true sense a holy book for the whole of humanity as it teaches all of us the
simple and the most divine lesson of humanity, to be humble , to be humane and
treat every one alike with respect.